Carpinus caroliniana (American Hornbean, Musclewood) 

Description: small shade tolerant understory tree, 10-30 ft. high, found in stream banks and bottomlands 

Leaves: 2-4 in. long, oval, double-toothed

Buds/Flowers: fruit triangular and papery, single nutlet (a small nut) 

Bark: smooth, fluted (grooved), blue-gray 


USDA, NRCS. 2015. The PLANTS Database (, 15 July 2015). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC 27401-4901 USA.