Forest Fungi Project Tree Species

Tree species

Family

Description

Leaves

Flowers/Fruit

Mycorrhizal association

Acer rubrum

red maple

Aceraceae (Maple family)

Medium tree up to 70 ft. tall, well adapted to most soils and forested wetlands, bark is gray and smooth when young becoming dark and scaly, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Opposite, up to 6 in. long, with 3-5 shallow palmate-lobed, coarsely toothed, light green above surface and the white lower surface

 

Flowers in dense yellow to red clusters opening in early spring, fruit is the smallest samara or wing nutlet, in pairs less than 1 in. long and ripen in spring

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Acer negundo

boxelder

Aceraceae

Medium tree up to 65 ft. tall, well adapted to moist soils, bark is gray-brown with shallow fissures becoming deeply furrowed, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Opposite, up to 7 in. long, with shallowly lobed pinnately compound with 3-5 (or more) leaflets; pointed at tip, upper surface green and lower surface light green, leaves resemble poison ivy but, has opposite leaf attachment

 

Flowers small yellow-green clusters opening in spring; fruit is a samara or winged nutlet 1 to 1 1/2 in. long that ripens in early fall

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Acer saccharum

sugar maple

Aceraceae

Large tree up to 80 ft. tall, lives in moist woods, bark gray to black scaly and furrowed, not found in Florida or South Carolina

Opposite, up to 5 in. long, 3-5 palmate lobes, sparsely to coarsely toothed, dark green above surface, pale green below surface

Flowers greenish-yellow opening in spring, fruit is a samara or winged nutlet, in pairs less than an inch long

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

 

Betula nigra river birch

Betulaceae (Birch family)

Large tree up to 75 ft. tall, lives along river and streams and bottomland woods, bark is red-brown curling and shedding, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

 

Alternate, up to 3 in. long, ovate double toothed blades

 

Flowers inconspicuous (not clearly visible) catkins blooms in spring, fruit cone shaped

 

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Carpinus caroliniana

American hornbeam

Betulaceae

Small shade tolerant understory tree up to 30 ft. tall, lives in moist woods, bark smooth blue-grey appearing “muscular”, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

 

Alternate, 2- 4 in. long, oval with pointy tips, double-toothed

catkins appear in springs, fruit are triangular and papery nutlets in clusters

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Carya cordiformis bitternut hickory

Juglandaceae (Walnut family)

Large tree up to 75 ft. tall, lives in bottomland woods, dry hills, and along roads, bark brown thin separating into platy scales in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, up to 6 in. long, pinnately compound with 7-9 lance-shaped leaflets, upper surface is yellow-green and lower surface is lighter and hairy, has thin mustard-yellow buds

Catkins appear in spring, fruit is a yellow round thin-husked nut around 1 ¼ in in diameter

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Carya glabra pignut hickory

Juglandaceae

Large tree up to 75 ft. tall, lives on wooded slopes and ridges, bark light gray to black and furrowed, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, up to 5 in. long, pinnately compound with 5 lance-shaped leaflets, upper leaflets are larger than bottom

Catkins appear in spring, fruit is a greenish pear-shaped hard-husked nut around 1 in in diameter

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Carya ovata shagbark hickory

Juglandaceae

Large tree up to 80 ft. tall, lives in shaded wood, bark “shaggy” separating into shedding scales, not found in Florida

Alternate, up to 10 in long, pinnately compound with 5-7 lance-shaped leaflets, upper leaflets are larger than bottom

Catkins appear in spring, fruit is a yellow-green to red-brown round with a thick splitting husk around 2 in in diameter

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Celtis occidentalis hackberry

Ulmaceae

Large tree up to 80 ft. tall, lives in low woodlands, bark smooth gray when young becoming “warty” at maturity, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, up to 5 in. long, simple ovate with course teeth and rough surface, three veins arise from base of leaf

Flowers are yellow-green and dropping with no petals, fruit is a round dark purple flesh surrounding a hard nut around 1/3 in in diameter

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Diospyros virginiana persimmon

Ebenaceae

Medium tree up to 50 ft. tall, lives in dry woods and on the edges of fields, bark dark gray to black broken into square-like blocks; not in Wi, Mi, Ma, Nh, and Ct

Alternate, up to 3 in. long, simple with smooth edges, dark green upper surface and a lighter lower surface

Male flowers and female flowers are found on different trees and are cream to yellow-green,

Fruit is a pale orange berry with seeds 1 to 2 in. in diameter that produce in late summer

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Fagus grandifolia American Beech

Fagaceae

Large tree up to 100 ft. tall, lives in rich woods, bark is gray, thin, and smooth; in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, up to 4 in. long, oblong leaves with course teeth and a pointed tip

Pink male flowers and white female flowers, fruit is 3 red-brown nutlets with spiny burs around ¾ in in length

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Fraxinus americana   white ash

Oleaceae

Large tree up to 100 ft. tall, lives in bottomlands and wooded slopes, bark is gray with diamond shaped furrows, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Opposite, up to 5 in. long, pinnately compound with 5-9 lance-shaped leaflets, lower surface pale

Flowers are small green to purple with no petals, fruit are samaras or paddle-shaped winged nutlets in clusters up to 2 ½ in long

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

green ash

 

Oleaceae

Medium tree up to 60 ft. tall, lives in bottomlands, bark is gray with diamond shaped furrows, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Opposite, up to 6 in. long, pinnately compound with 7-9 elliptical-shaped leaflets, green upper and lower surface

Flowers are small green to purple with no petals, fruit are samara or paddle-shaped winged nutlets up to 2 in. long 

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Gleditsia triacanthos honeylocust

Fabaceae

Medium tree up to 70 ft. tall, lives in moist wooded ravines and thickets, bark is dark brown and deeply furrowed at maturity and sometimes has large 3-parted spines, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, up to 4 in long, bipinnately compound with 3-6 pairs of side branches, dark shiny green on upper surface

Flowers are yellow to white elongating clusters appearing in early summer, fruit is a long-twisted purple-brown seed pod 

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Juglans nigra black walnut

Juglandaceae

 Large tree up to 150 ft. tall, lives in rich woods, bark is black and thick with deep furrows, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, 12-24 in. long, leaves pinnately compound with 15-23 lance-shaped leaflets, terminal leaflet absent or small, yellow green smooth upper surface and hairy lower surface, aromatic

Male (drooping green clusters) and female (rabbit ears) flowers, Fruit fleshy, yellow-green to green, thick husk with hard black nut inside

 

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Lirodendron tulipifera

tuliptree

Magnoliaceae (Magnolia family)

Large tree up to 120 ft. tall, lives in rich woods, bark is gray with furrows deepening and whitening at maturity, not in Wi, Nh, Ma

Alternate, 4-6 in. long, simple blades divided into four lobes, upper lobe has a deep notch at tip, bright green

Flower green and orange and resemble a tulip shape, fruit is in a cone-like cluster

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Ostrya virginiana hophornbeam

Betulaceae (Birch family)

Small tree up to 40 ft. tall, lives on hillsides, upland woods and along streams, bark is brown and scaly, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

 

Alternate, up to 5 in. long, simple ovate blades symmetrical at base and double-toothed, lower surface has tufts of yellow hair on lower midrib

Male flowers are catkins female flowers are clusters of sac-like pods, fruit is light brown and resembles hop, 1.5 -2.5 in. long

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Picea glauca

white spruce

Pinaceae

(Pine family)

Large conifer tree with pyramid crown up 160 ft. tall, lives on slopes and along streams, bark is gray-brown, thin, and scaly, only found in Wi, Mi, and the northeast 

Alternate spiral, needles are on all sides of twig and crowded towards tip up to ½ in. long; needles are blue-green and stiff with a white waxy layer 

Light brown seed cones 1 - 2 1/2 in long, cone scales fan shapped and flexible

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Pinus elliottii (slash pine)

Pinaceae

Medium-large conifer tree with a round top up to 80-100 ft. tall, lives in woods, wetlands, and along the edges of lakes, bark is orange-brown scaly with plates, only found in the SE

Alternate spiral, needles are at the end of the branches and resemble “brooms”, can be 5-11in. long

Glossy-brown stiff cones up to 6 in. long with fine prickles at the tip

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Pinus strobus eastern white pine

 

Pinaceae

Large conifer tree with pyramid crown up to 150 ft. tall, lives in moist woods and slopes, smooth green-brown developing gray-brown with deep fissures at maturity, in range for all FFP citizen scientists 

Alternate spiral, needles are blue-green in clusters of 5, soft and flexible, and 2 ½ - 5 in. long

Cones are stiff 4-8 in. long and 1 in. thick

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Prunus serotina

black cherry

Rosaceae (Rose family)

Medium tree 50-60 ft. tall, lives along edges of woods, roads, and in moist sites in woods, bark is

red-brown to black and furrowed at maturity, in range for all citizen scientists

 

Alternate, 2-6 in. long, elliptical, with long tapered tip, finely toothed edges, commonly with rusty hairs along the midrib on underside

 

flowers in long clusters, fruit black when ripe

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Quercus alba white oak

Fagaceae

Larger tree up to 100 ft. tall, lives in moist to dry wood, bark is light gray with large white patches, lives in moist and dry woods, in

range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, up to 5-9 in. long, with 7-9 rounded lobes, clefts between lobes may be deep or shallow, bright green above, pale green below

 

 

Yellow or red clustered catkins; acorn oblong up to 1 in long; cap covers ¼ nut and has knobby scales

 

 

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Quercus rubra northern red oak

Fagaceae

Medium-large tree up to 80 ft. tall, lives in rich upland forests and along rivers, bark has darker stripes, not in Fl

Alternate, up to 10 in. long, with 7-11 shallow lobes with bristle-tips, leaf stalks up to 2 in long

Yellow-green clustered catkins; acorn ovoid up to 1 ½ in. long, cap covers ¼ the nut and is saucer-shaped

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Quercus velutina

black oak

Fagaceae

Medium-large tree up to 80 ft. tall, lives in upland forests, bark is black with yellow or orange inner bark, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, up to 10 in. long, with 7-11 shallow lobes with bristle-tips; leaf stalks up to 2 in long

Yellow clustered catkins; acorn ½ - in. long with a slightly fringed cap

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Tilia americana American basswood, Linden

Tillaceae

 

Large tree up to 80ft. tall, bark is gray furrowed with flat ridges, lives in rich woods, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate; up to 8 in. long; simple ovate blades

Inconspicuous cream colored fragrant flowers; round golden yellow fruit attached to bract in Autumn

Ectomycorrhizal fungi

Ulmus americana American elm

Ulmaceae

Large tree up to 80 feet tall, bark is gray with furrow breaking into plates at maturity, lives in bottomland forests and along streams, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, 3-6in. long; simple elliptical blade pointed at the tip, double-toothed along the edge, asymmetrical at base of leaf, upper surface smooth

Greenish-red hairy drooping clusters of 3-4 flowers; oval winged fruit ½ in. long

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Ulmus rubra slippery elm

Ulmaceae

Medium tree up to 65-80ft. tall, lives in bottomland woods, along streams, and upland woods, bark has shallow furrows that is slippery when chewed, in range for all FFP citizen scientists

Alternate, 3-7 in. long, simple elliptical blade pointed at the tip, double-toothed along the edge, upper surface rough

Greenish drooping clusters appearing in spring; circular winged fruit less than 1 in.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi